Table 1

Baseline clinical characteristics of the individuals with type 1 diabetes with (SDR+) and without (SDR−) incident severe diabetic retinopathy

Variables and baseline covariatesSDR−SDR+P value
Sex, n (female %)321 (51.0)168 (40.7)0.001*
Age (years)30.6 (23.3–40.4)33.7 (26.2–45.7)<0.001†
Age at onset of diabetes (years)17.2 (11.0–25.8)12.1 (7.3–18.4)<0.001†
Diabetes duration (years)11.7 (7.4–18.7)20.4 (14.5–28.2)<0.001†
Normal AER, n (%)576 (91.4)203 (49.2)
Microalbuminuria, n (%)41 (6.5)102 (24.7)<0.001*
Macroalbuminuria, n (%)13 (2.1)108 (26.1)
Onset of ESRD, n (%)8 (1.3%)23 (5.6%)<0.001*
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)127±14136±19<0.001†
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)77±981±10<0.001†
Body mass index (kg/m2)24.7±3.425.4±3.7<0.001†
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)109 (96–120)102 (82–116)<0.001†
History of smoking, n (%)254 (40.3)208 (50.4)0.001*
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)3.08±0.853.53±0.94<0.001†
Follow-up (years)16.6 (14.2–17.5)6.7 (2.6–11.1)<0.001†
Deaths (n)90NA
LPS activity (EU/mL)0.50 (0.36–0.69)0.54 (0.37–0.81)0.03†
Mean number of antibiotic purchases per follow-up year0.67±0.680.92±1.040.02†
  • *Pearson’s χ2-test.

  • †Mann-Whitney U-test.

  • AER, albumin excretion rate; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; LPS activity, bacterial lipopolysaccharide activity; NA, not applicable; SDR+, individuals with incident severe diabetic retinopathy during follow-up; SDR−, individuals without severe diabetic retinopathy during follow-up and with absent/mild retinopathy at baseline. Data are presented as mean±SD, median (IQR) or percentages where appropriate.