Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants according to ophthalmic conditions

Without any eye disease of interest (n=87 602)AMD (n=3671)Cataract (n=15 353)DR (n=2922)Glaucoma (n=6386)*
Age (years)62.0±4.063.7±3.964.0±3.862.9±4.163.4±4.0
Gender
 Women47 094 (53.8)2222 (60.5)9076 (59.1)1047 (35.8)3044 (47.7)
 Men40 508 (46.2)1449 (39.5)6277 (40.9)1875 (64.2)3342 (52.3)
APOE4
 Yes64 443 (73.6)2732 (74.4)11 270 (73.4)2206 (75.5)4688 (73.4)
 No20 260 (23.1)845 (23.0)3604 (23.5)616 (21.1)1502 (23.5)
 Missing2899 (3.3)94 (2.6)479 (3.1)100 (3.4)196 (3.1)
Education
 College/university degree26 898 (30.7)1066 (29.0)4234 (27.6)583 (20.0)1729 (27.1)
 Upper secondary8853 (10.1)367 (10.0)1402 (9.1)234 (8.0)582 (9.1)
 Final stage of secondary education17 583 (20.1)743 (20.2)3129 (20.4)515 (17.6)1312 (20.5)
 Lower secondary2842 (3.2)110 (3.0)364 (2.4)90 (3.1)155 (2.4)
 First stage of secondary education6063 (6.9)232 (6.3)972 (6.3)238 (8.1)472 (7.4)
 Vocational qualifications5615 (6.4)286 (7.8)1147 (7.5)176 (6.0)449 (7.0)
 Others1274 (1.5)68 (1.9)295 (1.9)71 (2.4)147 (2.3)
 Missing18 474 (21.1)799 (21.8)3810 (24.8)1015 (34.7)1540 (24.1)
Household income
 <18 00020 389 (23.3)1049 (28.6)4555 (29.7)1140 (39.0)1779 (27.9)
 18 000–30 99921 251 (24.3)906 (24.7)3775 (24.6)657 (22.5)1590 (24.9)
 31 000–51 99917 051 (19.5)657 (17.9)2394 (15.6)337 (11.5)1056 (16.5)
 52 000–1 00 00011 212 (12.8)311 (8.5)1256 (8.2)163 (5.6)596 (9.3)
 >1 00 0002943 (3.4)77 (2.1)308 (2.0)34 (1.2)132 (2.1)
 Unknown4328 (4.9)195 (5.3)1035 (6.7)218 (7.5)386 (6.0)
 Not answered10 428 (11.9)476 (13.0)2030 (13.2)373 (12.8)847 (13.3)
Physical activity (MET minutes/week)2679±23902632±23162560±22672218±21712598±2304
Sleep duration (hours)7.17±1.147.22±1.277.21±1.227.33±1.617.22±1.23
Cooked vegetables (tablespoons/day)2.91±1.973.06±2.293.01±2.163.08±2.282.98±2.03
Raw vegetables (tablespoons/day)2.30±2.182.32±2.252.34±2.372.34±2.462.24±2.22
Fresh fruits (pieces/day)2.36±1.652.50±1.572.44±1.652.63±2.102.38±1.84
Dried fruits (pieces/day)1.02±1.971.17±2.281.07±1.940.89±2.021.00±1.85
Alcohol consumption
 Never4130 (4.7)205 (5.6)1089 (7.1)328 (11.2)349 (5.5)
 Previous3506 (4.0)166 (4.5)759 (4.9)300 (10.3)314 (4.9)
 Current79 820 (91.1)3299 (89.9)13 476 (87.8)2285 (78.2)5710 (89.4)
 Missing146 (0.2)1 (0.0)29 (0.2)9 (0.3)13 (0.2)
Smoking
 Never79 907 (91.2)3377 (92.0)14 113 (91.9)2623 (89.8)5845 (91.5)
 Former5637 (6.4)218 (5.9)961 (6.3)225 (7.7)418 (6.5)
 Current1977 (2.3)72 (2.0)261 (1.7)72 (2.5)121 (1.9)
 Missing81 (0.1)4 (0.1)18 (0.1)2 (0.1)2 (0.0)
BMI (kg/m2)27.5±4.627.7±4.827.9±4.930.9±5.627.8±4.7
Cholesterol (mmol/L)5.74±1.145.67±1.185.61±1.214.45±1.065.61±1.19
Glucose (mmol/L)5.19±0.985.31±1.385.37±1.567.72±3.785.31±1.45
Diabetes3921 (4.5)312 (8.5)1636 (10.7)2454 (84.0)575 (9.0)
Stroke1806 (2.1)112 (3.1)470 (3.1)187 (6.4)184 (2.9)
Heart disease4966 (5.7)302 (8.2)1454 (9.5)667 (22.8)555 (8.7)
Hypertension25 950 (29.6)1270 (34.6)5437 (35.4)1739 (59.5)2281 (35.7)
Depression4786 (5.5)234 (6.4)895 (5.8)204 (7.0)325 (5.1)
  • Data are mean (SD) or N (%).

  • *The sum of the sample sizes for all columns exceeded the total participants included in the analysis as some participants had multiple ophthalmic conditions.

  • AMD, age-related macular degeneration; BMI, body mass index; DRED, diabetes-related eye disease; MET, metabolic equivalent.