Table 2

Risk of bias items assessed in the included studies

Low risk of biasHigh risk of bias
Study setting
Population or community0
Clinic or hospital1
Study design
Prospective cohort0
Retrospective cohort1
Response rate
Ascertainment of AMD
Retinal photographs0
Ophthalmoscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy1
Exclusion of prevalent AMD
Documented excluding those with prevalent AMD at baseline0
Not documented1
Sex subgroups
Not reported1
Severity of incident cases
Not reported1