Table 1

Studies of early and late age-related macular degeneration incidence

Data by sexAMD typeAMD assessmentSample sizeCumulative incidence (%)Annual incidence (%)
First author, yearStudy name, regionRegionEthnicityAge range (years)Follow-up duration (years)MFAllEarlyLateGrading systemFIEEEarlyLateEarlyLateEarlyLateYear of follow-upRisk of bias score
Bressler, 199517 Waterman Study, USANorth AmericaWhite70+5WARM502.00.4019901
Sparrow, 199719 Melton Mowbray, UKEuropeWhite84–976.7WARM824.90.751989–911
vanLeeuwen, 200320 Rotterdam Study, the NetherlandsEuropeWhite55–86+6.5WARM482248227.41.31.190.201995–981
Mukesh, 200421 Melbourne Visual Impairment Project, AustraliaOceaniaWhite40–80+4.5IC1466161817.30.54.220.111997–990
Delcourt, 200522 Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l’Age Study, FranceEuropeWhite60–80+3IC14240.50.161998–20001
Jonasson, 200523 Reykjavik Eye Study, IcelandEuropeWhite50–80+5IC59169321.31.24.790.2420010
Buch, 200524 Copenhagen City Eye Study, DenmarkEuropeWhite60–8014.5WARM25429731.514.82.611.102000–020
Kashiwagi, 200525 JapanAsiaAsian37–7810SS2190.40.0419982
Leske, 200626 Barbados Eye Study, BarbadosLatin America & CaribbeanBlack40–70+9SS2070236212.60.71.500.081996–20010
Chang, 200827 Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project, USANorth America65–862SS308715336.10.33.150.1519951
White65–862SS236511565.60.32.880.15
Black65–862SS7223777.90.34.110.15
Yasuda, 200928 Hisayama Study, JapanAsiaAsian40+9WARM1201139111.91.71.410.1920071
Coleman, 201029 Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, USANorth America65–85+5WARM1194171024.15.75.521.170
White74–85+5WARM1033149325.16.25.781.281991–93
Black65–85+5WARM16121716.70.93.650.182002–03
Choudhury, 201130 Los Angeles Latino Eye Study, USANorth AmericaHispanic40–80+4.3WARM354735472.60.20.610.052004–071
You, 201231 Beijing Eye Study, ChinaAsiaAsian40–70+5IC304930494.20.10.860.0220060
Klein, 201332 Beaver Dam Eye Study, USANorth AmericaWhite43–8420WARM1913191317.24.00.940.202008–102
Jonasson, 201433 The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, IcelandEuropeWhite67+5WARM2196219614.20.73.060.142007–111
Joachim, 201534 Blue Mountains Eye Study, AustraliaOceaniaWhite49+15WARM2036242122.76.81.720.472007–091
Fisher, 201635 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, USANorth America45–848WARM368538023.50.90.450.112008–100
White45–858WARM148615494.81.50.620.19
Black45–868WARM9389491.60.10.200.01
Hispanic45–878WARM8088413.00.50.380.06
Asian45–888WARM4534634.01.30.510.16
Founti, 201636 Thessaloniki Eye Study, GreeceEuropeWhite60+11.6IC10785.40.482011–141
Bastawrous, 201737 Nakuru Eye Disease Cohort Study, KenyaAfricaBlack50–80+6IC1282128215.80.02.860.002013–141
Cheung, 201738 Singapore Malay Eye Study, SingaporeAsiaAsian40–70+6WARM172918035.90.81.010.132010–120
Foo, 201839 Singapore Indian Eye Study, SingaporeAsiaAsian40+6WARM210521055.10.50.870.082013–151
Saunier, 201840 Antioxydants, Lipides Essentiels, Nutrition et Maladies Oculaires Study, FranceEuropeWhite73–80+3.8IC65965918.26.85.291.852010–121
Farinha, 201941 Epidemiologic Coimbra Eye Study, PortugalEuropeWhite55–84+6.5IC1479160710.70.81.740.122016–181
  • EE, eye examination; F, female; FI, fundus imaging; IC, International Classification System; M, male; SS, study specific; WARM, Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System.