Table 2

Top eight medications and/or drug categories by percentage of no effect, improvement and worsening, with respective ratios (number of reported improvements/total times used)

Total times used (n)No effect (%)Improvement (%; ratio)Worsening
(%; ratio)
Drug category by no effect (%)
Drug category by improvement (%)
 Benzodiazepines/hypnotics12451%31%; 0.3
 Triptans3067%23%; 0.2
 Lamotrigine3444%21%; 0.2
 Tricyclic antidepressants6157%20%; 0.2
 Gabapentin3161%19%; 0.2
 Beta-blockers4869%19%; 0.2
 Topiramate4055%18%; 0.2
 Vitamins/nutraceuticals16880%15%; 0.2
Drug category by worsening (%)
 Recreational drugs and alcohol19857%39%; 0.4
 ADHD medication2646%38%; 0.4
 Atypical antidepressants2748%37%; 0.4
 Lamotrigine3444%35%; 0.4
 Topiramate4055%28%; 0.3
 SSRIs13962%24%; 0.3
 Steroids4564%24%; 0.2
 Tricyclic antidepressants6157%23%; 0.2
  • Only values for drugs having been used a minimum of n=20 times are displayed.

  • ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.