Table 1

Results of n=380 treatment questionnaires in visual snow syndrome

Drug categoryTotal times used
N
Total times with no effect
n (%)
Total times with improvement
n (%)
Total times with worsening
n (%)
Therapeutic ratio
Antidepressants227134 (59%)35 (15%)58 (26%)0.6
 SSRIs13986 (62%)19 (14%)34 (24%)0.6
 Tricyclics6135 (57%)12 (20%)14 (23%)0.9
 Atypical2713 (48%)4 (15%)10 (37%)/
Recreational drugs and alcohol198113 (57%)7 (4%)78 (39%)0.1
 Cannabis9966 (67%)1 (1%)32 (32%)0.03
 Hallucinogens (LSD, psilocybin)3317 (52%)3 (9%)13 (39%)/
 Stimulants (cocaine, ecstasy)3022 (73%)/8 (27%)/
 Alcohol16/3 (19%)13 (81%)/
Vitamins/nutraceuticals168134 (80%)26 (15%)8 (5%)3.3
Antiepileptics15181 (54%)32 (21%)38 (25%)0.8
 Topiramate4022 (55%)7 (18%)11 (28%)/
 Lamotrigine3415 (44%)7 (21%)12 (35%)/
 Gabapentin3119 (61%)6 (19%)6 (19%)/
 Valproic acid1914 (74%)2 (11%)3 (16%)/
 Pregabalin177 (41%)7 (41%)3 (18%)/
Antibiotics/antifungals141122 (87%)3 (2%)16 (11%)/
Benzodiazepines/hypnotics12463 (51%)38 (31%)23 (19%)1.7
Others (caffeine, contraceptives, etc.)9359 (63%)9 (10%)26 (28%)0.3
Pain medication8159 (73%)9 (11%)13 (16%)0.7
 NSAIDs4434 (77%)5 (11%)5 (11%)/
 Paracetamol/acetaminophen2118 (86%)2 (10%)1 (5%)/
 Opioids167 (44%)2 (13%)7 (44%)/
Antihypertensive drugs6847 (69%)13 (19%)8 (12%)1.6
Steroids4529 (64%)5 (11%)11 (24%)/
Triptans3020 (67%)7 (23%)3 (10%)/
ADHD medication
(amphetamine-type, atomoxetine, methylphenidate)
2612 (46%)4 (15%)10 (38%)/
Antihistamines/decongestants1813 (72%)1 (6%)4 (22%)/
Antipsychotics103 (30%)/7 (70%)/
Nausea/dizziness medication84 (50%)1 (13%)1 (13%)/
  • Drug categories are ordered by total reported number of times used in the past. Therapeutic ratio is measured as number of reported improvements/number of reported worsenings; it is shown only for drugs for which number of reported improvement + number of reported worsening ≥20.

  • ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; LSD, lysergic acid diethylamide; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.