Table 2

Description of CBS symptoms, clinical management decisions and patient-reported impact of hallucinations

IDDescription of CBS symptomsReporting HCPCBS managementCBS impact
01No specific descriptorsConsultant ophthalmologistPrescribed antipsychotic medication (risperidone)Symptom onset when tired and/or stressed after overexertion. Withdrawal from university due to symptoms
02Complex—people, faces, prosopometamorphopsia
Simple: flashing lights
Consultant paediatricianSecond opinion sought with paediatric ophthalmologist. Referred for further brain imaging (MRI)Finding life stressful and missing meals
03Simple: shapesLVA optometristNot describedSymptoms occurring since age 6, but reported age 12 years
04Simple: flashing lightsOphthalmologist-in-trainingProvision of tinted glasses for bright lights. Inform about potential strategies to reduce symptomsImages not considered upsetting
05Simple: linear patterns and spotsOphthalmologist-in-trainingProvided an information leafletNot described
06Simple: visual phenomenaOphthalmologist-in-trainingNot describedNot described
07Simple: visual phenomenaOphthalmologist-in-trainingProvided an information leaflet and arranged appointment with family support workerNot described
08Simple: patch resembling silver line or bar, appearing and disappearing occasionally seen in multiplesLVA optometristAdvised to ask for further medical opinion at next hospital reviewNot described
09Simple: visual phenomenaConsultant ophthalmologistProvided verbal information on CBS in clinicNot described
10Simple: visual disturbanceClinician-in-trainingProvided verbal information on CBS in clinicNot described
11Complex: menacing faces, prosopometamorphopsia
Simple: shapes
LVA optometristReferred to consultant neuro-disability paediatrician and paediatric counsellor. Advised quiet story at bedtime and prescribed melatonin (2 mg) to help sleep disturbances. Provided verbal information on CBS in clinic. Directed to support group. Advised to contact GP for further helpFrightened. Very upset. Disrupted sleep. Symptoms feature more frequently at night particularly when anxious or stressed
12No specific descriptorsOptometristContacted by family supportRegular nightmares
13Complex: animalsOphthalmologist-in-trainingNot describedNot described
  • CBS, Charles Bonnet syndrome; GP, general practitioner; HCP, healthcare professional; LVA, low-vision assessment.