Table 3

Crude and adjusted HRs for the Cox proportional hazard regression analyses and 95% CIs for corneal ulcers in the study cohort during the follow-up period

CohortCrude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Atopic keratoconjunctivitis
 Yes1.42* (1.33 to 1.52)1.26* (1.41 to 1.39)
 No1.001.00
Age group (years)
 <120.79* (0.71 to 0.89)0.91 (0.81 to 1.03)
 12–192.70* (2.45 to 2.97)2.87* (2.60 to 3.17)
 20–291.84* (1.67 to 2.03)1.87* (1.69 to 2.07)
 30–391.05 (0.94 to 1.19)1.07 (0.95 to 1.21)
 ≥401.001.00
Sex
 Female1.54* (1.43 to 1.64)1.47* (1.37 to 1.58)
 Male1.001.00
City status
 Metropolis1.36* (1.25 to 1.49)1.34* (1.23 to 1.47)
 Satellite1.07 (0.93 to 1.24)1.08 (0.93 to 1.25)
 Rural1.001.00
Comorbidity
 Diabetes mellitus0.97 (0.66 to 1.41)1.19 (0.81 to 1.76)
 Chronic renal disease4.50* (1.13 to 17.98)5.61* (1.39 to 22.62)
 Topical steroid ophthalmic agent1.39* (1.30 to 1.49)1.16* (1.05 to 1.28)
 Lid margin disease1.86* (1.23 to 2.84)1.73* (1.13 to 2.67)
 Keratoconjunctivitis sicca2.57* (1.69 to 3.90)2.60* (1.71 to 3.97)
 Ocular blunt trauma3.98* (2.51 to 6.33)3.53* (2.20 to 5.67)
 Post-corneal transplantation32.35* (19.80 to 52.86)33.53* (20.47 to 54.93)
  • *p<0.05.

  • The adjusted HR for developing a corneal ulcer was calculated using the Cox proportional hazard regression analysis.