Table 2

Retinal findings on dilated eye examination of inpatients with severe COVID-19

Patient no./sex/age rangeBaseline comorbidities*Inpatient unityInvasive mechanical ventilationVasoactive pharmacological support
2/M/60sHBP, DMICUYesNo
4/M/60sHBP, AFICUYesYes
5/M/60sHBP, DMICUYesNo
6/M/70sHBP, DMICUYesYes
7/M/50sHBP, DM, CHFICUYesYes
8/M/50sHBP, AFICUYesYes
Patient no./sex/age range Anticoagulation therapy Time between confirmatory exam and dilated eye examination, days Retinal findings
1/M/40sProphylactic†7Peripheric retinal haemorrhages in OS
2/M/60sProphylactic†11Macular hyperpigmented lesions suggestive of RPE hyperplasia in OS
3/F/60sNone6Retina sectorial pallor at LTA and choroidal naevus in OD
4/M/60sProphylactic†55Peripheric retinal haemorrhages in OU
5/M/60sProphylactic†10Macular haemorrhages and hard exudates in OU, peripapillary flame-shaped haemorrhage in OS
6/M/70sFull-intensity‡12Cotton wool spots at UTA in OS
7/M/50sFull-intensity‡12Peripapillary flame-shaped haemorrhage in OD
8/M/50sFull-intensity‡15Cotton wool spots at UTA in OS
9/F/60sNone39Asteroid hyalosis in OD, cotton wool spot with adjacent flame-shaped haemorrhage at LTA in OS
10/M/40sProphylactic†0Peripapillary flame-shaped haemorrhage in OS
  • *Previously referred diagnosis described on medical charts.

  • †Prescription of enoxaparin 40 mg/day.

  • ‡Prescription of enoxaparin 1 mg/kg two times per day or unfractionated heparin in a dosage adjusted to activated partial thromboplastin time between 61 and 85 s.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; CHF, chronic heart failure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; F, female; HBP, high blood pressure; ICU, intensive care unit; LTA, lower temporal arcade; M, male; OD, right eye; OS, left eye; OU, both eyes; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium; UTA, upper temporal arcade.