Table 2

Ocular and corneal HOAs of pooled population and difference among different age groups at baseline

ParametersTotalAge, yearsP value†
(n=458)≤12
(n=146)
13–15
(n=209)
16–18
(n=103)
Ocular, μm
Total HOA RMS0.25±0.110.25±0.100.24±0.100.27±0.130.091
SR0.03±0.090.03±0.070.04±0.110.02±0.060.342
Spherical HOA RMS0.06±0.050.06±0.050.06±0.050.06±0.050.622
Embedded Image 0.01±0.080.00±0.080.02±0.070.02±0.08 0.011*
Embedded Image −0.01±0.01−0.01±0.01−0.01±0.010.00±0.01 <0.001*
Comatic HOA RMS0.18±0.110.18±0.100.18±0.110.20±0.130.307
Embedded Image 0.12±0.140.12±0.140.12±0.140.13±0.170.620
Embedded Image 0.00±0.090.00±0.09−0.01±0.090.03±0.09 0.005*
Embedded Image 0.01±0.020.01±0.020.02±0.020.02±0.03 0.038*
Embedded Image 0.00±0.010.00±0.010.00±0.010.00±0.01 0.013*
Trefoil HOA RMS0.11±0.070.11±0.060.11±0.060.13±0.08 0.042*
Embedded Image ‡§−0.02±0.100.00±0.10−0.02±0.09−0.06±0.11 <0.001*
Embedded Image §−0.02±0.08−0.03±0.08−0.02±0.080.00±0.08 0.018*
Embedded Image §0.00±0.020.01±0.020.00±0.020.00±0.02 0.001*
Embedded Image 0.00±0.010.00±0.010.00±0.010.00±0.010.068
Corneal, μm
Total HOA RMS0.27±0.100.26±0.100.27±0.100.29±0.110.168
SR0.01±0.050.02±0.050.01±0.030.01±0.060.570
Spherical HOA RMS§¶0.10±0.050.08±0.050.10±0.050.10±0.05 <0.001*
Embedded Image §−0.09±0.05−0.08±0.05−0.09±0.05−0.10±0.05 0.001*
Embedded Image 0.00±0.020.00±0.020.00±0.020.00±0.020.528
Comatic HOA RMS0.15±0.090.14±0.080.15±0.080.16±0.100.277
Embedded Image −0.05±0.14−0.04±0.13−0.06±0.13−0.06±0.150.339
Embedded Image 0.02±0.080.02±0.080.03±0.080.02±0.090.741
Embedded Image −0.01±0.030.00±0.03−0.01±0.03−0.01±0.03 0.049*
Embedded Image 0.00±0.010.00±0.020.00±0.020.00±0.010.601
Trefoil HOA RMS0.14±0.080.14±0.080.14±0.070.15±0.080.215
Embedded Image 0.05±0.110.04±0.110.05±0.110.06±0.120.545
Embedded Image 0.03±0.080.04±0.090.03±0.080.02±0.090.097
Embedded Image −0.01±0.03−0.01±0.04−0.01±0.030.00±0.03 0.022*
Embedded Image 0.00±0.020.00±0.020.01±0.020.01±0.030.708
  • The t-tests with Bonferroni Correction was used for the comparison between subgroups.

  • The bold values were those P values <0.05.

  • *P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

  • †The analysis of variance test was used for the comparison of spherical equivalent, axial length and HOA among three age groups.

  • ‡P<0.0167 for comparison between the age (13–15 years) group and age (16–18 years) group.

  • §P<0.0167 for comparison between the age ≤12 years group and the age (16–18 years) group.

  • ¶P<0.0167 for comparison between the age ≤12 years group and the age (13–15 years) group.

  • HOA, higher-order aberration; RMS, root mean square; SR, strehl ratio.