Table 3

Demographics and HOAs of the pooled population at different visits and comparison with an early study

ParametersBaseline
(n=99)
First year
(n=99)
Hiraoka’s study
(n=71)
P value*
Age, years12.54±2.5313.54±2.539.20±1.60<0.001
SE, D−7.34±1.71−8.10±1.75−2.73±0.74<0.001
Astigmatism, D−1.26±0.96−1.57±1.00
AL, mm26.46±0.9026.69±0.8924.58±0.73<0.001
Ocular, μm
Total HOA RMS0.25±0.100.25±0.100.35±0.13<0.001
SR0.03±0.090.02±0.04
Spherical HOA RMS0.06±0.050.06±0.04
Embedded Image 0.01±0.080.01±0.070.07±0.12<0.001
Embedded Image −0.01±0.01†−0.01±0.01†
Comatic HOA RMS0.18±0.100.17±0.10
Embedded Image 0.11±0.14†0.12±0.13†0.11±0.191.000
Embedded Image −0.08±0.07†0.04±0.07†0.01±0.11<0.001
Embedded Image 0.02±0.020.01±0.03
Embedded Image 0.01±0.01†0.00±0.01†
Trefoil HOA RMS0.12±0.070.12±0.07
Embedded Image −0.03±0.10†−0.02±0.10†−0.05±0.120.236
Embedded Image −0.02±0.09−0.03±0.090.00±0.120.213
Embedded Image 0.01±0.02†0.00±0.01†
Embedded Image 0.00±0.010.00±0.01
Corneal, μm
Total HOA RMS0.29±0.11†0.26±0.11†0.40±0.11<0.001
SR0.01±0.03†0.02±0.03†
Spherical HOA RMS0.09±0.04†0.10±0.05†
Embedded Image −0.09±0.04†−0.10±0.05†0.22±0.08<0.001
Embedded Image 0.00±0.020.01±0.02
Comatic HOA RMS0.15±0.09†0.13±0.08†
Embedded Image −0.03±0.13†−0.07±0.12†−0.01±0.170.383
Embedded Image 0.08±0.07†−0.01±0.06†−0.15±0.10<0.001
Embedded Image 0.00±0.03−0.01±0.02
Embedded Image 0.00±0.01†0.01±0.01†
Trefoil HOA RMS0.17±0.08†0.14±0.09†
Embedded Image 0.11±0.11†0.03±0.12†−0.04±0.08<0.001
Embedded Image 0.05±0.08†0.03±0.10†−0.02±0.08<0.001
Embedded Image −0.03±0.03†0.00±0.03†
Embedded Image 0.00±0.030.01±0.03
  • *The t-tests with Bonferroni Correction was used for the comparison between our study and Hiraoka’s study.

  • †P<0.05 was considered statistically significant for the paired t-test used for the comparison between different visits.

  • AL, axial length; HOA, higher-order aberration; RMS, root mean square; SE, spherical equivalent; SR, strehl ratio.