Table 4

Statistically significant fixed effects from linear mixed models of the influences of HOA component changes on axial length*

ModelParametersβP value
Model 1 Ocular HOA RMS (total, spherical, comatic and trefoil) and SRIntercept19.772<0.001
Gender†−0.3430.002
IPD0.066<0.001
SE−0.289<0.001
Spherical HOA−3.6030.026
Model 2
Ocular HOA
Spherical Zernike components
Intercept19.408<0.001
ln (Age)0.6460.036
Gender†−0.415<0.001
IPD0.063<0.001
SE−0.269<0.001
Embedded Image −2.777<0.001
Model 3
Ocular HOA
Comatic Zernike components
Intercept20.281<0.001
Gender†−0.3630.001
IPD0.061<0.001
SE−0.295<0.001
Embedded Image −11.8460.019
  • *Parameters and interactions showing statistical insignificance are not shown, for example, ocular Zernike terms and all corneal HOA terms. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

  • †Parameter estimated for girls.

  • HOA, higher-order aberration; IPD, inter pupillary distance; RMS, root mean square; SE, spherical equivalent; SR, strehl ratio; β, parameter estimates.