Table 3

Risk factors for DR incidence and progression in the MESA

Risk factorsDR incidenceDR progression
RR (95% CI)*RR (95% CI)†RR (95% CI)*RR (95% CI)†
Age, per year0.98 (0.96 to 1.01)0.99 (0.97 to 1.02) 0.95 (0.91 to 0.99)0.99 (0.94 to 1.04)
Gender, female1.19 (0.78 to 1.82)1.05 (0.67 to 1.63)0.67 (0.31 to 1.45)0.44 (0.17 to 1.09)
Ethnicity
 WhiteReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Chinese1.24 (0.64 to 2.40)1.21 (0.63 to 2.34)1.91 (0.31 to 11.85)1.13 (0.23 to 5.51)
 African American0.72 (0.39 to 1.33)0.56 (0.30 to 1.07)2.33 (0.57 to 9.60)1.86 (0.49 to 7.11)
 Hispanic1.16 (0.68 to 2.00)0.91 (0.52 to 1.57)1.56 (0.35 to 6.94)1.11 (0.25 to 5.03)
Diabetes duration, per year0.98 (0.94 to 1.03)0.94 (0.88 to 1.00)
Education
 College or higherReferenceReference
 High school or lower1.32 (0.87 to 2.02)1.03 (0.48 to 2.18)
Total household income
 >US$50 000ReferenceReference
 US$25 000 to US$50 0001.67 (0.94 to 2.97)0.80 (0.33 to 1.96)
 <US$25 0001.71 (0.98 to 3.00)0.88 (0.35 to 2.20)
Cigarette smoker, current1.47 (0.82 to 2.62)1.88 (0.80 to 4.41)
Body mass index, per unit1.02 (0.99 to 1.05)1.00 (0.94 to 1.06)
Hip-to-waist ratio, per 0.1 unit1.00 (0.74 to 1.33)1.09 (0.75 to 1.58)
Physical activity, per hour/week1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)1.00 (1.00 to 1.01)
Hypertension0.78 (0.51 to 1.18)0.49 (0.23 to 1.01)
Hypertension medications
 Diuretics1.44 (0.91 to 2.26)1.78 (0.83 to 3.79)
 Angiotensin 2 antagonists1.10 (0.49 to 2.47)0.98 (0.37 to 2.62)
 ACE inhibitor0.83 (0.52 to 1.34)0.90 (0.42 to 1.94)
Systolic blood pressure, per 10 mm Hg 1.11 (1.01 to 1.22) 1.14 (1.04 to 1.25)0.85 (0.72 to 1.01)
Diastolic blood pressure, per 10 mm Hg1.09 (0.90 to 1.32)1.08 (0.79 to 1.46)
Insulin use1.62 (0.76 to 3.47)0.84 (0.31 to 2.27)
HbA1c, per % 1.32 (1.19 to 1.45) 1.28 (1.16 to 1.41) 1.29 (1.13 to 1.47) 1.20 (1.00 to 1.43)
Total cholesterol, per mmol/L1.00 (1.00 to 1.01)1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)
HDL cholesterol, per mmol/L1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)0.98 (0.95 to 1.01)
LDL cholesterol, per mmol/L1.00 (0.99 to 1.01) 1.02 (1.01 to 1.03) 1.01 (1.00 to 1.03)
Statin use0.77 (0.48 to 1.23)0.83 (0.38 to 1.81)
Homocysteine 0.91 (0.84 to 0.98)0.93 (0.85 to 1.00)1.05 (0.94 to 1.18)
C reactive protein1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)1.02 (0.95 to 1.09)
Proteinuria1.27 (0.78 to 2.06)0.76 (0.32 to 1.81)
Internal carotid IMT, mm0.85 (0.60 to 1.19)0.79 (0.41 to 1.52)
 Z-score maximum IMT0.94 (0.74 to 1.19)0.85 (0.57 to 1.26)
  • Systolic blood pressure and hypertension were evaluated in separate multivariable models due to high collinearity.

  • Bold values represent statistically significant associations (p<0.05)

  • Multivariate adjusted RR (95% CI).

  • *Univariate unadjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% CI.

  • †Multivariate adjusted RR (95% CI).

  • ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; DR, diabetic retinopathy; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IMT, intima-media thickness; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MESA, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.