Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the MESA participants with diabetes

AllIncident DRP valueDR progressionP value
YesNoYesNo
N=498*N=70N=295N=23N=110
Age, years63.2 (8.9)62.0 (9.4)63.8 (8.8)0.11858.7 (7.5)63.2 (8.8)0.026
Gender, female247 (49.6)38 (54.3)144 (48.8)0.419 (39.1)56 (50.9)0.304
Ethnicity
 White114 (22.9)18 (25.7)75 (25.4)0.3182 (8.7)19 (17.3)0.573
 Chinese57 (11.5)11 (15.7)35 (11.9)2 (8.7)9 (8.2)
 African American169 (33.9)16 (22.9)99 (33.6)12 (52.2)42 (38.2)
 Hispanic158 (31.7)25 (35.7)86 (29.2)7 (30.4)40 (36.4)
Education
 High school or lower214 (43.0)35 (50.0)122 (41.4)0.18910 (43.5)47 (42.7)0.947
 College or higher284 (57.0)35 (50.0)173 (58.6)13 (56.5)63 (57.3)
Total household income
 <US$25 000170 (34.1)29 (41.4)100 (33.9)0.1137 (30.4)34 (30.9)0.889
 US$25 000 to US$50 000165 (33.1)25 (35.7)89 (30.2)8 (34.8)43 (39.1)
 >US$50 000163 (32.7)16 (22.9)106 (35.9)8 (34.8)33 (30.0)
Diabetes duration, year9.4 (7.9)6.5 (3.8)7.2 (6.3)0.5799.5 (6.0)13.7 (9.6)0.096
Cigarette smoker, current54 (10.9)10 (14.3)27 (9.2)0.2085 (21.7)12 (11.0)0.163
Body mass index31.2 (6.1)32.1 (6.6)31.0 (6.1)0.21931.1 (5.3)31.3 (6.0)0.887
Hip-to-waist ratio1.04 (0.08)1.05 (0.07)1.05 (0.07)0.9751.05 (0.07)1.04 (0.09)0.697
Physical activity, hours/week72.2 (73.4)76.8 (77.4)69.6 (75.4)0.47890.7 (65.7)72.3 (67.1)0.231
Hypertension312 (63.8)39 (55.7)181 (63.3)0.24312 (52.2)80 (72.7)0.052
Anti-hypertensive medications
 Diuretics107 (22.4)20 (29.0)57 (20.4)0.1258 (34.8)22 (20.6)0.142
 Angiotensin 2 antagonist46 (9.6)5 (7.2)18 (6.5)0.8124 (17.4)19 (17.8)0.967
 ACE inhibitor163 (34.1)19 (27.5)90 (32.3)0.4499 (39.1)45 (42.1)0.796
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg128.7 (21.4)131.6 (19.7)126.3 (19.1)0.040123.7 (19.2)134.0 (26.9)0.082
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg70.9 (10.1)71.9 (8.8)70.8 (10.2)0.40371.6 (9.4)70.6 (10.8)0.669
Insulin use42 (8.8)5 (7.2)11 (3.9)0.2414 (17.4)22 (20.6)0.73
HbA1c, %7.3 (1.7)7.9 (2.0)6.9 (1.2)<0.0019.3 (2.7)7.6 (1.7)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L181.0 (35.6)183.6 (39.4)180.4 (34.9)0.493193.5 (38.2)178.6 (34.3)0.071
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L46.9 (12.5)46.1 (13.8)46.5 (11.5)0.81644.9 (10.4)48.9 (14.5)0.224
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L103.5 (31.0)101.7 (30.0)103.3 (31.9)0.709122.9 (34.5)101.7 (27.6)0.002
Statin use177 (37.0)21 (30.4)105 (37.6)0.2658 (34.8)43 (40.2)0.63
Homocysteine9.2 (3.2)8.4 (2.4)9.5 (3.5)0.0219.3 (3.3)8.8 (2.6)0.393
C reactive protein4.6 (5.8)4.6 (4.6)4.6 (6.1)0.9775.2 (8.8)4.5 (4.7)0.591
Proteinuria116 (23.5)17 (24.6)57 (19.5)0.3446 (26.1)36 (32.7)0.533
Internal carotid IMT, mm1.14 (0.63)1.05 (0.51)1.13 (0.64)0.3761.15 (0.56)1.25 (0.66)0.511
 Z-score maximum IMT0.18 (0.96)0.08 (0.96)0.15 (0.95)0.5910.15 (0.88)0.32 (0.99)0.452
  • Data for a given column are expressed as numbers (percentages) for categorical variables or means (SDs) for continuous variables; p values calculated based on simple χ2 or Wilcox test (categorical), or independent sample t tests, comparing characteristics between participants with and without incident DR or DR progression.

  • *Of these, 133 participants had DR at baseline eye examination (ie, were not at risk of incident DR at follow-up eye examination).

  • ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; DR, diabetic retinopathy; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipid; IMT, intima-media thickness; LDL, low-density lipoprotein ; MESA, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.