Table 3

The univariate linear regression model for the association between demographic characteristics, medical history, behaviour, ocular parameters and central macular, inner and outer rings

VariablesCentral macular subfieldInner ringsOuter rings
BSEtP valueBSEtP valueBSEtP value
Age0.130.033.97<0.001–0.370.03–14.43<0.001–0.300.02–15.16<0.001
Gender8.340.6512.79<0.0017.630.5214.76<0.0013.150.417.67<0.001
Education–4.611.96–2.350.019–4.621.56–2.960.003–2.481.22–2.020.043
Current smoker6.310.748.50<0.0016.220.5910.52<0.0012.950.476.32<0.001
BMI–0.370.08–4.48<0.001–0.160.07–2.420.016–0.170.05–3.40.001
SBP00.0230.020.985–0.070.01–5.67<0.001–0.060.01–6.20<0.001
DBP–0.010.0–0.280.7780.020.020.780.436–0.030.02–1.810.070
Diabetes–1.991.68–1.190.236–7.731.33–5.81<0.001–4.201.04–4.04<0.001
HbA1c–0.340.46–0.750.453–2.130.36–5.89<0.001–1.210.28–4.26<0.001
HDL–3.521.20–2.930.0030.070.950.070.9430.850.741.150.252
LDL–0.890.46–1.960.050–0.790.36–2.190.029–0.860.28–3.080.002
Triglycerides–0.430.32–1.350.179–0.230.25–0.910.361–0.140.20–0.700.485
Coronary heart disease1.201.200.990.320–3.170.98–3.300.001–2.440.76–3.220.001
Cataract surgery0.133.530.040.970–6.722.81–2.390.017–4.592.2–2.090.037
IOP0.250.141.850.0640.190.111.700.089–0.090.09–1.040.301
Spherical equivalent–0.440.20–2.180.029–0.430.16–2.710.007–0.090.12–0.700.482
AL1.910.355.52<0.0011.410.275.16<0.001–0.760.21–3.57<0.001
CCT–0.010.01–0.740.4590.010.011.390.166–0.000.01–0.390.699
ACD5.330.965.52<0.0017.230.769.55<0.0012.780.604.66<0.001
Vertical C/D–0.262.52–0.110.917–4.822.00–2.420.016–8.061.56–5.178<0.001
Keratometry–0.770.22–3.59<0.001–0.910.17–5.28<0.0010.550.144.063<0.001
BCVA–1.052.13–0.490.623–15.941.69–9.46<0.001–8.241.32–6.23<0.001
  • Gender: male versus female; education: below high school versus high school or above.

  • ACD, anterior chamber depth; AL, axial length; BCVA, best-corrected visual acuity; BCVA, best-corrected visual acuity; BMI, body mass index; CCT, central corneal thickness; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IOP, intraocular pressure; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; OCT, optical coherence tomography; SBP, systolic blood pressure; Vertical C/D, vertical cup disc ratio.