Table 3

Corneal confocal microscopic parameters in COVID-19 patients with and without persisting neurological symptoms at 12 weeks and healthy control subjects

CNFD (no./mm2)CNBD (no./mm2)CNFL (mm/mm2)Total DC density (no./mm2)Mature DC density (no./mm2)Immature DC density (no./mm2)
Healthy control subjects (n=30)33.5±6.950.7±19.519.2±3.712.7 (0–30.4)0 (0–4.2)12.7 (0–24.7)
With neurological symptoms at 12 weeks (n=13)26.6±6.234.3±20.114.7±4.759.6 (14.9–99.2)8.3 (4.1–21.9)41.2 (11.9–78.3)
Without neurological symptoms at 12 weeks (n=16)34.4±6.746.6±17.019.5±3.927.8 (11.7–95.9)6.2 (0–12.5)18.4 (5.5–82.2)
P values
 With neurological symptoms vs control 0.008* 0.031* 0.004* 0.016† 0.001† 0.039†
 Without neurological symptoms vs control0.914*0.768*0.969*0.121†0.112†0.187†
 With vs without neurological symptoms 0.008* 0.201* 0.006* >0.999†0.357†>0.999†
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD for CNFD, CNBD and CNFL, and median (IQR) for DC density. The bold p values represent statistically significant differences.

  • *One-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey test.

  • †Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test with adjusted p values using Benjamini-Hochberg procedure.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; CNBD, corneal nerve branch density; CNFD, corneal nerve fibre density; CNFL, corneal nerve fibre length; DC, dendritic cells.