Table 3

Associations with 5-year change in spherical equivalent in phakic eyes

(n=15 836 eyes)Beta95% CIP value
Sex (female)−0.043−0.080 to 0.005 0.027
Age (per year)
 Linear term0.1390.12 to 0.15 <0.001
 Quadratic term−0.001−0.0014 to −0.0011 <0.001
Cardiovascular parameters
 HbA1c (%)0.011−0.040 to 0.0190.49
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)0.000−0.0010 to 0.00150.69
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)0.000−0.0002 to 0.00070.30
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)0.000−0.0003 to 0.00040.71
 BMI (kg/m2)−0.002−0.007 to 0.0040.55
 Physical activity0.000>−0.001 to <0.0010.14
Smoking history
 Non-smoker Reference
 Smoker0.0300.012 to 0.0720.16
 Occasional smoker−0.050−0.174 to 0.0740.43
 Former smoker0.023−0.012 to 0.0570.19
Ocular parameters
 Spherical equivalent (D)−0.015−0.033 to 0.0020.085
 IOP (mm Hg)−0.003−0.009 to 0.0030.34
 Lens opacity−0.001−0.039 to 0.0390.98
 Secondary gerneral school (‘Hauptschule’) Reference
 Intermediate school (‘Realschule’)0.013−0.03 to 0.080.57
 High school (‘Abitur’)0.000−0.04 to 0.040.98
 Others0.031−0.12 to 0.170.66
 None0.049−0.11 to 0.210.55
 Housemaker, retried or none Reference
 Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and horticulture−0.050−0.17 to 0.070.42
 Production and manufacturing−0.006−0.05 to 0.060.83
 Construction and architecture0.009−0.10 to 0.120.87
 Natural and computer science0.054−0.03 to 0.140.21
 Transport, logistics, security and military−0.051−0.11 to 0.010.10
 Commercial services and tourism0.004−0.06 to 0.060.89
 Business organisation, accounting, law and administration0.006−0.04 to 0.060.80
 Health and education−0.001−0.05 to 0.050.98
 Humanities, media and culture0.038−0.05 to 0.130.42
  • Data from the German population-based Gutenberg Health Study (2007–2017). Multivariable linear regression analysis with generalised estimating equations was conducted. Bold values indicate statistical significance (p<0.05).

  • HbA1c, Glycated hemoglobin; HDL, High-density lipoprotein; IOP, intraocular pressure; LDL, Low-density lipoprotein.