Table 2

Emerging countermeasure strategies for decreasing the risk of spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)

Emerging countermeasure strategies for spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)RationaleReferences
Lower body negative pressureDraw fluid from cephalad region towards the lower body54 60
Goggles (increased intraocular pressure)Increase translaminar pressure gradient that is reduced during spaceflight65 67 72
B Vitamin supplementationRelatively low B vitamin status in astronauts with ophthalmic changes20 41 68
Venoconstrictive thigh cuffsReduce cephalad fluid shift62 63
Identifying genetic risk factorsCertain risk alleles are associated with developing SANS20 41 68
Artificial gravity (centrifugation)Maintain hydrostatic pressure to prevent cephalad fluid shift61