Table 1

Proposed pathogenesis and contributing factors towards the development of spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)

Proposed mechanisms/contributing factors for development of spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)Year(s)References
Elevated intracranial pressure and/or compartmentation of the orbital optic nerve sheath from cephalad fluid shifts during microgravity20114
Genetic risk factors/single nucleotide polymorphisms, androgens and vitamin status2012, 201640 41
Cerebral blood volume pulsatility and vasculature remodelling201738
Upward brain and optic chiasm shift and anterior counterforce on the posterior globe201843
Ocular glymphatic system and cerebral spinal fluid compartmentalisation201830
Cytotoxic oedema/local oxidative stress at the optic nerve head from microgravity-induced venous stasis202021