Table 1

Characteristics of patients with and without gradable fundus photographs at baseline and follow-up

CharacteristicsPatients with gradable photographs (n=1392)Patients without gradable photographs (n=614)P value
Mean (±SD)/n (%)Mean (±SD)/n (%)
Age (years)61.2±8.564.1±9.7<0.001
Male, n (%)576 (41.4)243 (39.6)0.45
Income level, n (%)
 Low522 (38.4)209 (35.7)0.41
 Moderate773 (56.8)351 (60.0)
 High66 (4.9)25 (4.3)
Education, n (%)
 Primary or lower187 (13.7)137 (23.4)<0.001
 Middle/high school976 (71.3)380 (65.0)
 College and above206 (15.1)68 (11.6)
Current smoker, n (%)296 (21.7)129 (22.2)0.80
Current drinker, n (%)321 (23.5)99 (17.0)0.002
Diabetes treatment, n (%)
 No treatment189 (13.9)80 (13.8)0.97
 Oral841 (61.8)354 (61.3)
 Insulin332 (24.4)144 (24.9)
Proteinuria, n (%)440 (31.7)227 (37.2)0.02
Age of diabetic onset (years)53.6±9.756.2±10.7<0.001
Interval between treatment and diagnosis (years)1.2±3.11.2±3.10.68
Duration of diabetes (years)7.6±5.98.0±6.30.20
FPG (mmol/L)9.2±3.39.7±3.70.01
HbA1c (%)7.7±2.07.9±2.20.07
BMI (kg/m2)26.50±3.3426.17±3.640.053
SBP (mm Hg)148.2±22.5147.1±25.30.36
DBP (mm Hg)77.5±11.376.4±11.80.056
Serum creatinine (μmol/L)83.6±18.888.0±21.2<0.001
Blood urea nitrogen (mmol/L)6.21±3.426.35±2.450.30
Blood uric acid (μmol/L)306.9±84.2315.7±94.80.049
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.46±1.125.65±1.500.005
Total triglycerides (mmol/L)2.21±1.682.18±1.620.73
LDL (mmol/L)3.21±0.893.32±1.060.01
HDL (mmol/L)1.50±0.371.45±0.370.01
CRAE (μm)144.8±18.3145.3±30.90.73
CRVE (μm)227.9±28.7221.0±37.0<0.001
  • BMI, body mass index; CRAE, central retinal artery equivalent; CRVE, central retinal vein equivalent; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SBP, systolic blood pressure; WHR, waist:hip ratio.