Table 4

Association between baseline visual impairment bilaterality and severity with incident falls frequency

Characteristics≥2 falls
OR (95% CI)P value
Presenting bilateral/unilateral categories of VI
 Normal vision in both eyesReference
 Mild VI in one eye, normal vision in the other2.34 (1.09 to 5.03) 0.028
 Moderate-worse VI in one eye, normal vision in the other1.47 (0.59 to 3.69)0.403
 Mild VI in both eyes4.22 (1.77 to 10.03) 0.001
 Moderate-worse VI in one eye, mild VI in the other4.32 (2.01 to 9.28) <0.001
 Moderate-worse VI in both eyes2.46 (1.09 to 5.57) 0.030
  • Model adjusted for age, gender, race, body mass index, low socioeconomic status, EQ-5D mobility score, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, CVD, and medication use. Bolded values indicate significance.

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; EQ-5D, European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions; VI, visual impairment.